Earliar 2016 was considered to be the hottest year yet in human history. But now, 2020 will also be called the hottest year ever.
Indeed , the Copernicus Climate Change Service , the European Union’s Earth Observation Program , has announced that La-Nina , despite recurring weather events that have a cooling effect on global temperatures , remains uncommonly high during 2020 And with the previous record-holder 2016 , now 2020 is also recorded as the hottest year.
This announcement confirms the continuation of a worrying trend , the last six consecutive years being the hottest on record. It also highlights the need for countries to cut greenhouse gas emissions , which are mainly responsible for global warming. While experts believe current plans to meet the Paris Agreement are inadequate , regions such as China , Japan and the European Union have recently put forward more ambitious climate targets.
Scientists believe that as the planet heats up , the frequency and intensity of many extreme weather events increase . 2020 In many indications, with record temperatures in the Arctic, Australia and huge Waildfayr (wildfires in the US), and severe floods during the monsoon season because of heavy rains in many Asian countries (see below).
The mean global temperature is routinely analyzed by many scientific institutions. In addition to Copernicus , NASA , NOAA , Berkeley Art, and Hadley’s observatories monitor global temperatures throughout the year.
Because they use different methods , there are small differences between datasets and it is possible that other groups 2016 Compared to 2020 Don’t be overheated. Despite these small discrepancies , all analyzes confirm the overall trend , and recent years have consistently been found to be the hottest on record.
Growing ambition of climate
2020 has been a turning point for international climate action. Kovid – 19 epidemic the world’s largest reduction in annual greenhouse gas emissions by far Have created And several major economies have announced their commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions throughout the year.
Chinese President Xi Jinping said in September that The country would see the greatest increase in emissions before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality before 2060 . China is currently the world’s largest emitter , the most populous country and the second largest economy on the planet. South Korea And japan Other countries in the region also announced that they would become carbon neutral by 2050 .
A few days before the end of the year , the European Union extended its climate targets And it aims to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 55% by 2030 compared to 1990 levels . And in the United States, President-elect Joe Biden said immediately after assuming office, to resume the Paris agreement and an ambitious climate plan to control is resolved .
In Glasgow , November 2021 Is having a United Nations could set the stage for the climate change conference, low-carbon economy. In the following months , countries will have to submit their updated plans to cut greenhouse gas emissions. And now with renewable energy as the cheapest option in the market , it is expected that countries will step up their ambitions.
Year of extreme events
A recent report According to , 2020 Worldwide extreme weather events cost $ 150 Billion. These events included heatwaves , wildfires , floods, and tropical cyclones – all of which are affected by global warming.
Extreme temperatures remained stable throughout the year and many previous summer records were broken. These include:
• The hottest day on record in Siberia , 38 The highest recorded temperature north of the Arctic Circle , with a temperature of ° C. This extreme temperature was revealed between a heatwave , a study According to , without climate change it would have been “almost impossible”.
• on earth The highest temperature ever recorded ( 54.4 ° C in Death Valley , California ) .
• The hottest summer season in the Northern Hemisphere ( according to NOAA ).
The Wildfire made many headlines throughout the year. The extreme temperatures brought by climate change may have contributed to the severity of some of them. The list of worst fires worldwide includes:
• A fire in the bushes of Australia’s forests. Most expensive on record The forest bushes are considered a fire , this fire destroyed millions of acres And killed billions of animals . An Attribution Study Published in January 2020 Concluded that climate change reduced the risk of such fires by at least 30% Has increased.
• Fire in West Coast America. The fire season was the worst on record in California , with 4 More than million acres of land burned . Other areas of America’s west coast , such as Oregon and Washington , were also affected. Fire season an excessive heatwave The midst, who bring very high temperatures in this region.
• Fire in South America. Many South American countries were affected by wildfires in 2020 , including Brazil , Argentina , Bolivia and Paraguay. There were many fires in the Amazon , and also in the delta of the Parana river and the forest of Gran Chaco , causing significant damage to biodiversity.
Heavy rain and flood
Many countries have experienced episodes of extreme precipitation, associated with particular Asian monsoon. Scientists estimate The total monsoon rainfall will increase as the planet heats up , although some areas may receive less rain than others due to changes in wind patterns. Some affected countries:
• China Floods affected millions of people , causing thousands of displacements and at least 219 People were killed or missing. Estimate of damage from flood 32 Billion dollars.
• Pakistan Flooded by at least 410 People killed and $ 1.5 Billion cost I.
• India The death toll in floods was very high , including 2,067 People were killed. Loss estimate $ 10 Billion.
• Sudan The floods affected more than a million people , destroyed crops and caused at least 138 deaths.
2020 in both the Atlantic and Indian Ocean The tropical cyclone season has been very intense.
• 2020 in the Atlantic The storm season was by far the most active , with 30 There were named storms. To name a second time, storms in history had to use the Greek (Greek) names.
• In September, the Atlantic basin five storm Were active, the first one at which only record 1995 In , was seen.
• Some areas experienced several storms , many of which occurred almost one after the other. In the US, came five hurricanes in Louisiana alone, which is a new state record Installed. And countries in Central America , such as Honduras and Nicaragua , over a period of weeks, Hurricanes Etah and Iota Were impressed by.
• In South Asia , Cyclone Amfan Affected India , Bangladesh , Sri Lanka and Bhutan and 128 Caused deaths.
• In the Philippines , Super Typhoon Gony and Wamco Caused extensive damage and killed at least 97 people. Goni was the strongest tropical cyclone of the year.
In response , Dr. Karsten Haustin , scientist at the Climate Service Center Germany ( GERICS) , said, ” The fact that 2016 With 2020 Records hottest year on, another harsh reminder that human-induced climate change continues unabated constant. This is especially amazing because 2020 year l was not under the influence of Nino, a mode of natural climate variability in the tropical Pacific, which was made “supercharged” by 2016 with additional heat. In 2020. It was not a ‘Boost’, even though it was almost more than the previous record holder. In fact , only one particularly cold December (compared to November) 2020 Prevents the new stand-alone (lone) becoming the hottest year.
He adds, “In the context of the epidemic , scientists have found that liquidity (liquidity) support by governments as economic stimulus (incentives) to sustain businesses (and to support individuals) , the Paris Climate Agreement analog is far more than the investment required annual energy remaining carbon pathway. once we are facing an emergency situation, then suddenly is impossible (financial) action on an unprecedented scale. Given that we Even in the event of a climate emergency – which cannot be undone with a vaccine – smart investment options are needed, given what’s at stake. “
Dr. Marshall Shepherd , Distinguished Professor of Atmospheric Sciences and Geography , Georgia Athletic Association, said, ” I don’t think the issue is whether 2020 is the hottest year on record . We’re in an era of continuous record-breaking years. It is no longer breaking news , but a humanitarian crisis. “